The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are a number of
distinct forms of intelligence that each individual possesses in varying
The theory of multiple intelligences has been focused mostly on child
development although it applies to all ages. While there is no direct empirical
support for the theory,
"Logical-mathematical intelligence seems central, because programming depends upon the deployment of strict procedures to solve a problem or attain a goal in a finite number of steps. Linguistic intelligence is also relevant, at least as long as manual and computer languages make use of ordinary language...an individual with a strong musical bent might best be introduced to programming by attempting to program a simple musical piece (or to master a program that composes). An individual with strong spatial abilities might be initiated through some form of computer graphics -- and might be aided in the task of programming through the use of a flowchart or some other spatial diagram. Personal intelligences can play important roles. The extensive planning of steps and goals carried out by the individual engaged in programming relies on intrapersonal forms of thinking, even as the cooperation needed for carrying a complex task or for learning new computational skills may rely on an individual's ability to work with a team. Kinesthetic intelligence may play a role in working with the computer itself, by facilitating skill at the terminal..."
1. Individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences in learning.
2. Instructional activities should appeal to different forms of intelligence.
3. Assessment of learning should measure multiple forms of intelligence.
Gardner, H. (1982). Art, Mind and Brain.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind.
Gardner, H. (1993a). Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. NY: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1 993b). Creating Minds. NY: Basic Books.
Marks-Tarlow, T. (1995). Creativity inside out: Learning through multiple
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