Marathon training & running: Beginners and established marathon runners will benefit from resistance training: Hill repeats, sand, mud or bicycle for strength, plus a gradual mileage increase

Marathon Training, Phase one: Resistance Training by author David Holt

Copyright David Holt 2,000 Any part, or all of this training material may be quoted or reviewed...provided you acknowledge the source...Running Dialogue and other books by David Holt, this web page or www.runningbook.com, and contact me at holtrun@sprynet.com to let me know the material is being used or reviewed.

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Marathon Training--intermediate to advanced
Marathon Training phase two...anaerobic threshold

Phase one of four...Hill training

Marathon training phase one of four...
Marathon Training.
Itís a given that we increase mileage for strength, endurance and the
ability to prevent the wall, by burning fat. Yet many marathon runners
still avoid any form of quality training which also enhance these needs.
Here is a humane way to use all the marathon training an international
class runner will use.
Note: Those reading this with 8 weeks to the marathon can run each
training element three times during a fourteen day period.
Based on material in Running Dialogue by David Holt 280 pages.

Hill Repeats or RESISTANCE TRAINING
Marathon race preparation has four phases. The first three phases each
last three to six weeks, as you increase the long run by 3 to 4 miles per
phase--up to a maximum of 20 or so; AND bring in one special element
of marathon training. The fourth phase is the taper of 2-3 weeks.
Phase one is resistance training; phase two will be anaerobic threshold;
phase three VO2 maximum sessions.
If your current long run is eight miles, you will peak at 20 miles at the
end of phase 3, doing perhaps two 20 milers at five and three weeks pre
marathon. If you are already used to 14 miles each week, youíll reach
20 in phase 2, and enjoy six to eight runs at the 20 mile level. All of you
can include the three special sessions during your preparation.
Increased mileage will give you strength, but resistance training
improves strength while you train at high speed...with minimal injury
risk: Running hills, sand, mud, or into the wind is not easy, but nor is it
tough if you simply maintain the same effort level. 
	Steady runs, at 70-80 percent of maximum heart rate develop
aerobic base but do little to develop the neurological pathways needed
for fast marathon running. Hill repeats are a great way to do your
speedwork.
	Find a hill which is reasonably steep, but still runable...three to four
degrees is good, but steeper hills may give you faster rewards. You will
need 100 to 400 meters of hill for these sessions. 
	Now, ignore the efficient way of running hills. Hill reps require a
different action...an exaggerated running action. After a normal
warmup, start the first of about ten 100 meter repetitions. Run up the
hill with a high knee lift and sprinters type arm action. The legs should
not be going too fast...the emphasis is on lifting the knees higher than in
normal runs...but landing softly. Land closer to your toes than the heel
of the foot...midfoot is ideal: Similar to a sprinter. 
	On alternate reps, shorten and quicken the stride. One rep for
strength and speed; one rep for speed and strength.
	Pick a focal point close to the top of the hill: This helps to prevent
you leaning forward. You need to be perpendicular to the surface in hill
repeats.
	

To avoid Achilles Tendon injuries during marathon training

	Hold back on the first session. This training puts extra stress on the
Achilles tendon and calf muscles. The quadriceps may also ache a little
after, as may the back...gentle stretching should clear these aches. 
	The second time you do hills, try about eight repetitions of 200
meters. The third time, try five at up to 400 meters.

The entire session should be no harder than a tempo run.
	With the 400s, finish the rep just over the top of the hill--practice
accelerating as the gradient decreases. You can also practice this on
your long or tempo runs when youíre feeling fresh...pick the pace up by
ten seconds a mile for 20 strides before settling back to your regular
speed.
	Increase the quantity of reps and the speed. Run the hills faster than
in a race...using the rather unusual running actions described above. 
	25 of the short section of hill is about right; 10 or 12 of the long
section may be its equivalent. Do about 10 minutes of actual reps.
	Later, the recovery can become a jog...thus reducing the resting
percentage. But land gently on the way down.
	A fun way for you to do hills is to split it into sections. Stride up the
first section of say 150 meters--jog or walk up for thirty to sixty
seconds--then run the second section. You will have a longer recovery
going back to the start to repeat the reps in pairs or triples. You might
run six sets of two efforts in a session.
	Do these hills every 5-10 days, but donít ignore the other elements
in your training.
	When you can handle hills well in your marathon training, they will
seldom be a problem in races. In a race or tempo run, always run hills
with economy...using a low knee lift and short but fairly rapid stride.
Tuck in behind someone, get Ďpulledí up the hill, then find that other
gear youíve been practicing as you accelerate over the top. 
	Hills will improve your marathon racing speed by building strength
in the quads, hamstrings, buttocks, calves and back. It will also correct
your form--you canít run hills well with bad form. Hills increase your
anaerobic efficiency. Bigger quads result in fewer knee injuries. Hill
reps cause few injuries...there is much less shock per stride.
	Enjoy the hill--always enjoy the hill. Donít fight it...work with it.
	Doing a lot of distance can decrease your stride length. Even though
you will be doing repetitions, 200s etc. the hills will open your stride.
Just remember to exaggerate the knee lift and the arm swing, while
pushing off with the toes and calf muscles. 

Higher mileage marathon training or experienced racer

The high mileage person should be able to go straight to the 10 or 12 x
400 meter hills. The low mileage beginner will start with just a few reps
at 100 to 200 meters. 
I continue to be amazed by the beginner marathon training schedules
which recommend no speedwork.
You people will benefit even more than
high mileage people from a graduated series of hill sessions. They teach
you to run efficiently...dare I say it...to run properly. Your easy or
steady running then becomes more economic, youíll use less energy for
a given speed--if you practice good form and build leg strength.
And yes...you can run hills or resistance training on 25 miles per week;
you can do them in that lunch break run or whenever you put in those
40 minutes of running; and you should not be in intolerable discomfort
afterwards.



David's Bigstep marathon advice

Buy Running Dialogue Today! ">Running Dialogue, 280 pages, $17.95, by David Holt. Training for the 5K to the Marathon, for beginners and experienced runners, with extensive injury prevention and treatment advice, nutrition, cartoons and inspirational essays, at Amazon.com

Or send $17.95 per book to David Holt at PO Box 543, Goleta, CA 93116. (includes shipping and tax)


10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing">10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing: The Running Pyramid, at Barnesandnoble.com
Marathon training and racing, the basic running schedules
Marathon Training--intermediate to advanced
Marathon Training phase two...anaerobic threshold
Marathon Training phase three...VO2 max intervals
Sarcomere--muscle contraction unit
Racing 20 miles or 30k: Excellent step to marathon running
Half marathon training...first element...mileage and hills for strength
10k training...mileage and strength and access to four other parts of 10k training
5k training and racing...the first of five pages for the 5k runner
In depth discussion of hill training advice
Distance running links: mine mostly. Includes injury, diet, cross training etc

E-MAIL ORDER TO DAVID HOLT
Running Dialogue">Running Dialogue at barnesandnoble.com
Buy Running Dialogue Today! ">Running Dialogue, 280 pages, $17.95, by David Holt. Training for the 5K to the Marathon, for beginners and experienced runners, with extensive injury prevention and treatment advice, nutrition, cartoons and inspirational essays, at Amazon.com

Or send $17.95 per book to David Holt at PO Box 543, Goleta, CA 93116. (includes shipping and tax)


David Holt's second running book: 10K & 5K Running, Training and Racing.
Buy 10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing Today! ">10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing, 180 pages, $17.95, by David Holt (plus 3,000 meters, 8K, 12K and 10 mile training advice and schedules for 20-100 miles per week) at Amazon.com
10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing">10K & 5K Running, Training & Racing: The Running Pyramid, at Barnesandnoble.com
Art Liberman's Marathon Running Links...State of the art Marathon Training
This was...Marathon Training, Phase one: Resistance Training by David Holt